how many countries in Antarctica
Seven nations have territorial claims in Antarctica: France (Adélie Land), United Kingdom (British Antarctic Territory), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land), Australia (Australian Antarctic Territory), Chile (Chilean Antarctic Territory), and Argentina (Argentine Antarctica).
vThe United States, Peru, Russia, and South Africa have all reserved their right to claim territory in the future.
Antarctica is the southernmost continent on Earth. Antarctica's total area is 14.2 million square kilometers (5.5 million square miles). It has no permanent population, but typically hosts 1,000 - 5,000 visiting scientists.
Antarctica contains all four of Earth's South Poles: the Geographic South Pole, the Geomagnetic South Pole, the Magnetic South Pole, and the South Pole of Rotation.
Antarctica's climate is extremely cold and dry, making it difficult to inhabit and colonize. Along the coast in the winter, temperatures range from -22°F to 14°F (-30°C to -10°C) and hover around 32°F (0°C) during summers. The interior regions of the continent see temperatures of -76°F (-60°C) in the winter and -4°F (-20°C) in the summer. Antarctica was never colonized due to the harsh climate and conditions, so the land remained open and relatively free from territorial disputes. While France laid claim to a portion of the continent in 1840, the majority of claims wouldn't come until the early-to-mid 1900s, courtesy of the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Norway, Australia, Chile, Argentina, and Germany.
Antarctica Population 2022: Antarctica is the world's southernmost continent resting in the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean.
With 14 million square kilometers (5.4 million square miles) of area, it's the 5th largest continent. Almost 98% of the continent is covered by ice 1 mile thick, which certainly makes for harsh terrain that has little established population.
In 2016, the highest population recorded during the year is just over 4,000.
Antarctica's population is comprised mainly of scientific research staff.
The number of residents varies, from around 1,100 in the harsh Antarctic winter to around 4,400 in the milder summer months of October to February, plus an additional staff of 1,000 in the nearby waters.Antarctica has no indigenous inhabitants, only permanent and summer-only staff at its many research stations. Along with the 1,100 to 4,400 research staff, there is usually an additional 1,000 personnel, including ship's crew and scientists performing on-board research in the waters of the treaty region of Antarctica.
The CIA World Factbook maintains an updated breakdown of Antarctica's population.
Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent in terms of total area.
Antarctica is a unique continent in that it does not have a native population. There are no countries in Antarctica, although seven nations claim different parts of it:
New Zealand, Australia, France, Norway, the United Kingdom, Chile, and Argentina.
The Antarctic also includes island territories within the Antarctic Convergence. The islands of the Antarctic region are: South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands.
all claimed by the United Kingdom; Peter I Island and Bouvet Island, claimed by Norway; Heard and McDonald islands, claimed by Australia;
Scott Island and the Balleny Islands, claimed by New Zealand.
The unique weather and climate of Antarctica provide the basis for its familiar appellations Home of the Blizzard and White Desert. By far the coldest continent, Antarctica has winter temperatures that range from −128.6 °F (−89.2 °C), the world’s lowest recorded temperature, measured at Vostok Station (Russia) on July 21, 1983, on the high inland ice sheet to −76 °F (−60 °C) near sea level. Temperatures vary greatly from place to place, but direct measurements in most places are generally available only for summertime. Only at fixed stations operated since the IGY have year-round measurements been made.
Winter temperatures rarely reach as high as 52 °F (11 °C) on the northern Antarctic Peninsula, which, because of its maritime influences, is the warmest part of the continent. Mean temperatures of the coldest months are −4 to −22 °F (−20 to −30 °C) on the coast and −40 to −94 °F (−40 to −70 °C) in the interior, the coldest period on the polar plateau being usually in late August just before the return of the sun.
Whereas midsummer temperatures may reach as high as 59 °F (15 °C) on the Antarctic Peninsula, those elsewhere are usually much lower, ranging from a mean of about 32 °F (0 °C) on the coast to between −4 and −31 °F (−20 and −35 °C) in the interior. These temperatures are far lower than those of the Arctic, where monthly means range only from about 32 °F in summer to 31 °F in winter.International concern is increasing over the possibility of global warming (an amplification of Earth’s greenhouse effect). The glaciers and ice sheets of Antarctica may document such change, especially in West Antarctica.
Average winter temperatures on the Antarctic Peninsula have increased by 10.8 °F (6 °C) since 1960, and the disintegration of much of the Larsen Ice Shelf between January 1995 and March 2002 was largely attributed to climatic changes resulting from rising average air temperatures.
Antarctica holds most of the world’s fresh water
An incredible 60-90% of the world’s fresh water is locked in Antarctica’s vast ice sheet. The Antarctic ice sheet is the largest on Earth, covering an incredible 14 million km² (5.4 million square miles) of Antarctic mountain ranges alleys and plateaus.
This leaves only 1% of Antarctica permanently ice-free. Some areas are ice-free in the summer, including many of the areas we visit on the Antarctic Peninsula.
Antarctica is a desert
When most of us think of deserts we think of sand dunes and sizzling temperatures, but technically a desert doesn’t have to be hot or sandy, it’s more about how much precipitation the area receives as rain, snow, mist or fog.
A desert is any region that receives very little annual precipitation. The average annual rainfall at the South Pole over the past 30 years was just over 10 mm (0.4 in). Although there is more precipitation towards the coast, the average across the continent is low enough to classify Antarctica as a polar desert.
So while Antarctica may be covered in ice, it has taken an incredible 45 million years to grow to its current thickness, because so little rain falls there. As well as being one of the driest continents on Earth, Antarctica is also the coldest, windiest and highest.
first woman in antarctica
Women in Antarctica: Though the list of explorers, scientists, and scientific expeditions in Antarctica is as extensive as it is impressive, it has also been overwhelmingly one-sided in terms of gender - especially before the early years of the twentieth century.
Since the mid-1930s, however, women have little by little been making their presence known in Antarctica. This began modestly, with the wives of prominent navigators accompanying their husbands to Earth's coldest continent, then proceeded to female scientists visiting Antarctica to undertake their own research expeditions.