Hydrogen is the basic fuel, but fuel cells also require oxygen. One great appeal of fuel cells is that they generate electricity with very little pollution much of the hydrogen and oxygen used in generating electricity ultimately combine to form a harmless byproduct, namely water.
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hydrogen fuel cell technology
A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a chemical reaction. Every fuel cell has two electrodes called, respectively, the anode and cathode.
The reactions that produce electricity take place at the electrodes.
Every fuel cell also has an electrolyte, which carries electrically charged particles from one electrode to the other, and a catalyst, which speeds the reactions at the electrodes.
One detail of terminology: a single fuel cell generates a tiny amount of direct current (DC) electricity. In practice, many fuel cells are usually assembled into a stack. Cell or stack, the principles are the same.
fuel cell, any of a class of devices that convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electricity by electrochemical reactions. A fuel cell resembles a battery in many respects, but it can supply electrical energy over a much longer period of time. This is because a fuel cell is continuously supplied with fuel and air (or oxygen) from an external source, whereas a battery contains only a limited amount of fuel material and oxidant that are depleted with use. For this reason fuel cells have been used for decades in space probes, satellites, and manned spacecraft.
Numerous municipalities in Japan, Europe, and the United States lease fuel cell vehicles for public transportation and for use by service personnel. Personal fuel cell vehicles were first sold in Germany in 2004.
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Fuel cell electric cars are powered by the most abundant element in the universe: hydrogen. Although a fuel cell car runs on electricity, it does so differently than battery-powered or plug-in hybrid cars. In a fuel cell, hydrogen reacts electrochemically to produce electricity to power the car.
Fun to drive
Instant torque and smooth, consistent power
Fast refueling (3-5 minutes)
Access to carpool lanes and other incentives
Attractive lease pricing often bundled with free fuel/maintenance
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Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. It is a major component of water, oil, natural gas, and all living matter. Despite its simplicity and abundance, hydrogen rarely occurs naturally as a gas on Earth. It is almost always combined with other elements. It can be generated from oil, natural gas, and biomass or by splitting water using renewable solar or electrical energy.
Once hydrogen is produced as molecular hydrogen, the energy present within the molecule can be released, by reacting with oxygen to produce water. This can be achieved by either traditional internal combustion engines, or by devices called fuel cells. In a fuel cell, hydrogen energy is converted directly into electricity with high efficiency and low power losses.
Hydrogen, therefore, is an energy carrier, which is used to move, store, and deliver energy produced from other sources.
fuel cell technology pdf
fuel cell technology explained
A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity through an electrochemical reaction, not combustion. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined to generate electricity, heat, and water.
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Questions have been raised about the amount of energy consumed to make hydrogen and the CO2 generated when hydrogen is extracted from natural gas or propane, but industry advocate Fuel Cells 2000 says those concerns are made up for in the higher efficiency of fuel cell operation (47% efficient versus 35% for central utility), lower emissions, and cogeneration of heat that increases energy efficiency to around 85% to 90%. The industry is working to develop renewable forms of hydrogen such as from biomass, solar, and wind energy—that also would reduce production emissions. Residential systems tied in with PVs already accomplish this, using solar power to extract the hydrogen.